• Introducing Demons - Reinterpretation of Images on Etruscan Tombs and Pottery Forced by Their Alphabetic Akkadian Translations (500-400 BCE)

    David Olmsted (see profile)
    Alphabetic Akkadian, Classical Philology and Linguistics, Etruscan archaeology, Pagan Studies
    Art, Etruscan, Akkadians, Magic, Etruscans--Antiquities, Etruscans
    Item Type:
    Online publication
    cyclops, skadi, demons, Art/Archaeology, Etruscan art, Akkadian, Alphabetic Greek, Etruscan archeology, Etruscan
    Permanent URL:
    The past inability to translate Etruscan texts has meant that the interpretation of Etrucan art has been mostly speculation. This interpretation has been made even more difficult because this was the time when new demon imagery (Cyclops, Skadi) not seen in the past was being introduced as Etruscan religious culture was changing from the magical Ancient Pagan Paradigm to the lordified dualist framework of today’s religions. Etruscan texts were written in Alphabetic Akkadian which was the common written language of trade and temple all around the Mediterranean prior to its replacement by Greek and Latin. Etruscan texts are distinguished from Greek texts by their writing direction with Etruscan texts written from right to left and Greek texts written from left to right. The motivation behind these tomb and pottery texts was an ongoing debate about the cause droughts. The Tomb of Orcus supports the use of human emotion magic as a corrective practice while the Tomb of Shields is anti-magic. The life class deities mentioned in these texts are the top layer source god Alu, middle layer network god Hu, network editing and crescent moon goddess Ayu, and life form manifester (revealer) god Yahu. The magical motion class deities mentioned are the top layer full moon source god Su and the middle layer hermaphrodite deity Thu.
    Last Updated:
    2 years ago


    Item Name: pdf etruscan-image-texts-olmsted-2022.pdf
      Download View in browser
    Activity: Downloads: 83