• Penptah (Tabnit) Sarcophagus Text from Sidon is a Phoenician / Israelite Debate over the Great Bronze Age Drought (1170 BCE) - Updated

    David Olmsted (see profile)
    Alphabetic Akkadian, Biblical archaeology, Pagan Studies, Phoenician Studies
    Phoenicians, Religions, History, Ancient, Middle East, Mediterranean Region, Magic
    Item Type:
    Online publication
    sidon, Sarcophagi, Yah, Ancient Alphabetic inscriptions, Ancient Israelite religion, Ancient religion, Ancient Near East, Ancient Mediterranean religions
    Permanent URL:
    This Phoenician letter style text dating to 1170 BCE was written in the empire language of Alphabetic Akkadian which was used by traders and temples for cross-cultural communication. Phoenician, like all other alphabetic writing, derives from the commercial Minoan writing tradition but is a separate letter style lineage apart from the lineages of the Greek Islands (Philistines), and Israelites. Like all large Mediterranean archaeological texts, this is a religious/philosophical debate over the cause of a drought. Being traders, the Phoenicians gave priority to the motion powers of the Ancient Pagan Paradigm while the Israelites, being agricultural, gave priority to the life-growth powers. The word “Israel” means “righteous of Alu” in Akkadian where Alu is the life power source deity. Consequently, this is a debate between the Phoenicians and the early Israelites. Both agree that the “Revealer” (Yahu) needs to be “released” but they have different suggested cures. The Phoenicians claim that only emotion magic can enhance the fertility fluid flows inhibited by the astrological powers of fate. These fertility fluids release the Revealer to manifest earthly life forms. In contrast, the Israelites claim that the cure is to work with the higher life growth powers to correct the faulty gating of the fertility fluids. Deities mentioned are the network god Atu, crescent moon goddess Ayu, and full moon god Su, healing Sun god Hu. Deity epithets mentioned are the Revealer (Yahu), the Opener (Utu), Controllers (life network editors), Authorities (planetary motion powers of fate), the Shepherd (Su), and the Reed Boat (Ayu). Also mentioned are magic, emotion owls, astrological owls, and eagle-vultures. (This is an update from an earlier translation (Olmsted, Sept 30, 2020) based upon a better understanding of the word E as a verb.)
    Last Updated:
    3 years ago


    Item Name: pdf olmsted-sidon-text-1-2020-updated-2021.pdf
      Download View in browser
    Activity: Downloads: 138